How CATL Grew to become China’s Electrical Car Battery King


IIn late 2019, residents of Arnstadt in central Germany woke as much as discover an excavator at a brand new manufacturing unit on the outskirts of the town, on the positioning of a defunct photo voltaic panel manufacturing plant. The $2 billion venture, unfold over 57 acres—about 100 soccer fields—was Germany’s first large-scale battery gigafactory with the capability to pump sufficient batteries for a whole lot of 1000’s of electrical automobiles every year.

Germany invented the four-stroke internal-combustion engine in 1876 and its automobile trade helped energy Germany’s post-war vertshaftswunder Manufacturers reminiscent of BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Audi have turn out to be symbols of reliability and engineering experience. However the Arnstad manufacturing unit was not being constructed by a German carmaker. As an alternative it was being financed and constructed by a little-known Chinese language firm, based solely eight years earlier within the mountainous japanese fishing metropolis of Ningde, China. The corporate, Up to date Amperex Expertise, or CATL, had already struck offers to produce batteries to Volkswagen and BMW as auto producers sought to reinvent themselves and transfer away from inside combustion engines. CATL additionally entered into an settlement to produce batteries for Daimler’s electrical buses and vehicles.

To fulfill the EU’s local weather change targets, German carmakers needed to cut back their fleet carbon emissions beginning in 2020 or face the prospect of huge fines from Brussels. So, in early 2019, earlier than the brand new coverage went into impact, carmakers reminiscent of Volkswagen and Mercedes-Benz maker Daimler started asserting daring guarantees concerning the variety of electrical automobiles they might produce.

Growing the manufacturing of batteries, the costliest a part of electrical autos (EVs), is vital to creating electrical autos profitable within the mass market. However, European automobile producers had no home battery manufacturing or a presence in an intensive battery provide chain. In the meantime, CATL was constructing its manufacturing unit in Arnstadt, and Tesla was in talks to construct a gigafactory exterior Berlin. German carmakers had no alternative however to open their examine books and go to Asia to purchase batteries in bulk and take a stake in Chinese language battery firms.

“Our rivals aren’t primarily based in Ulm or Münster,” says Wolf-Dieter Lukas, secretary of state on the German federal Ministry of Training and Analysis. “They’re positioned in South Korea and China.” It was a reversal of destiny for Europe. Germany was once a provider to China of superior manufacturing, however now China has moved up the worth chain. By 2022, CATL was supplying practically each electrical carmaker on this planet, together with Tesla and Ford, giving the corporate a number one place within the transition away from fossil fuels.

How did the Chinese language firm that few had heard of, handle to beat German automobile makers at their very own sport?


Zeng Yukun, CEO of latest Amperex Expertise and Wolfgang Tiffens (R), Minister of Economics of Thuringia of the Social Democratic Occasion (SPD), on a contract as a part of the fifth German-Chinese language authorities session on the Federal Chancellery in Berlin, Germany signal. July 2018.

Arne Emmanuel Bunsch/Image Alliance- Getty Photographs

CATL’s headquarters are positioned on the banks of Ningde, only a quick distance from the ponds the place farmers elevate carp. The sprawling manufacturing unit is subsequent to a road of low cost noodle eating places and automobile restore retailers frequented by migrant staff. Contained in the manufacturing unit, battery components transfer silently on automated conveyor belts. There are only some—and none—within the military of migrant staff typifying the Chinese language boomtown factories of the 2000s. As soon as a diminutive however a poor metropolis with tea gardens and mountains, Ningde is legendary in China due to President Xi Jinping’s tenure as social gathering secretary within the metropolis from 1988 to 1990. His father, Xi Zhongxun, a high-ranking social gathering member, had refused to assist crackdown on liberal reformer Hu Yaobang, which led to scholar protests at Tiananmen Sq. in 1989 within the busy coastal metropolis of Ningde, Xiamen. , which resulted in violent demonstrations. Motion by the Folks’s Liberation Military in June.

In the identical yr, a younger man named Zeng Yukun, also called Robin Zeng, made his approach from Fujian to southern China, to the bustling coastal metropolis of Dongguan in southern Guangdong province, close to Hong Kong, to turn out to be a world capitalist. And embracing openness. , regardless of widespread crackdown on political speech.

For an aspiring younger man, shifting to Dongguan was like going to the middle of the world, a spot linked by international provide chains, the place staff lived in crowded dormitories and will watch Hong Kong tv, which was identified for the truth that The rationale was not censored. Town was a British colony at the moment. Within the metropolis, which a number of years in the past had fields and rice paddies, international traders have been being inspired by the native authorities to spend money on manufacturing enterprises. Dongguan attracted vital Taiwanese, Hong Kong and international funding in factories, and acted as a magnet for Chinese language expatriate staff. (Dongguan’s inhabitants doubled within the Nineteen Eighties.) It was a frontier metropolis: a world of factories and prostitutes the place migrants got here on one-way prepare tickets to make garments or toys. Within the night, its streets have been stuffed with hopes and goals as younger staff completed their shifts.

Zeng discovered work at a Hong Kong firm known as SAE Magnetic that made magnetic recording majors for laptop laborious drives—an trade Dongguan would dominate. This was a major change from Zeng’s childhood. Born to a farming household within the small mountain village of Lankou exterior Ningde in the course of the chaos of the Cultural Revolution in 1968, Zeng was naturally clever. On the age of 17 he dropped out of college to check engineering at Shanghai Jiao Tong College and later earned a doctorate in condensed matter physics from the Chinese language Academy of Sciences in Beijing. After graduating he joined a state-owned firm in Fujian Province, the place he may lead a cushty life with the “Iron Rice Bowl”, because it was identified to work in state-owned firms – A job that might make his mother and father proud. However entrepreneur Zeng was not content material to waste his hours within the sleeping kingdom and left Dongguan after solely three months.

Zeng stayed in Dongguan for 10 years, rising to turn out to be the only mainland-China-based director of SAE Magnetic. Throughout this era, he additionally started to study batteries, and by the late Nineties, Zeng was persuaded by Liang Shaokang, CEO of the magnetic laborious drive firm, to start out a battery firm.

In 1999, Zeng launched ATL in Hong Kong to fabricate batteries for cell electronics. This was the perfect time: cell phone gross sales have been on the rise and lots of have been connecting to the Web, which required extra transportable electrical energy. The lithium battery increase had begun and Dongguan quickly grew to become a middle for the manufacturing of cell phones, chargers and equipment.

The contemporary Amperex Technology Limited (CATL) headquarters and manufacturing complex are seen in this aerial photograph taken on Monday, January 29, 2018 in Ningde, Fujian Province, China.  (Kylai Shen/Bloomberg—Getty Images)

The headquarters and manufacturing advanced of Up to date Amperex Expertise Restricted (CATL) is seen on this aerial {photograph} taken in Ningde, Fujian Province, China, on Monday, January 29, 2018.

Kylie Shen/Bloomberg—Getty Photographs

When it began, nonetheless, ATL had no mental property or any breakthrough know-how of its personal. Zeng and his colleagues spent $1 million to purchase a lithium polymer patent from Bell Labs within the US, however after they returned dwelling, ATL discovered that working the know-how was not as simple as that they had thought – increasing the battery then. Occurred when it was charged repeatedly and it was additionally susceptible to bursting. As they struggled in Dongguan, they nervous that it’d spell the tip of the younger firm. He spent two weeks working additional time to beat difficulties by making an attempt completely different electrolyte mixtures. In the long run, he obtained the lithium polymer battery to work. As soon as that was accomplished, they managed to sharply reduce the price of manufacturing—a mannequin the Zeng would later replicate with electrical automobile batteries. ATL was capable of produce batteries at half the price of its Korean rivals. Their lithium polymer battery was additionally thinner than different fashions and may very well be sized in accordance with the machine. The corporate made a revenue inside three months of manufacturing the battery.

This was the start of China’s transfer into batteries – a enterprise dominated by Japan since Sony commercialized the primary lithium-ion batteries in 1991. China had slowly ushered within the battery revolution, with its first lithium battery being developed in 1995 on the Institute of Physics. As of 2000, Japan nonetheless accounted for 90% of the world’s annual lithium-ion battery manufacturing with 500 million batteries, and China solely produced 35 million per yr. But by 2001, ATL was delivery over one million batteries utilized in Bluetooth headsets and transportable DVD gamers. In the identical yr, China joined the World Commerce Group, which opened the nation to vital international funding. ATL helped China turn out to be a excessive worth producer of batteries.

In 2011, Zen determined to get into automobile batteries and launched CATL. As of 2017, CATL had overtaken Panasonic because the world’s largest lithium-ion battery producer when it comes to gross sales, scaling up manufacturing scale and managing decrease manufacturing prices than its Korean and Japanese rivals. German carmakers had no alternative however to depend on China to safe their EV batteries.

It was not simply Germany although. CATL equipped batteries to a number of Chinese language start-ups listed on the US inventory change reminiscent of Nio and Xpeng, which had begun exporting automobiles to Europe, including one other layer of competitors to the Germans. British automobile firm MG, owned by China’s state-owned SAIC, additionally offered its ZS EV within the UK utilizing CATL batteries, and to make sure it had a gradual stream of sources, CATL launched an Australian lithium venture, Indonesia. purchased a stake in a nickel venture within the U.S. , and a cobalt deposit within the Democratic Republic of the Congo – all the mandatory battery materials.

As of 2022, the chubby and petite Zeng was price $34.3 billion and was the thirtieth richest individual on this planet in accordance with the 2022 Bloomberg billionaires record. The corporate had made extra billionaires than Google or Fb, and was already price greater than Volkswagen. Based on Fritz Prinz, Austrian mechanical engineering professor at Stanford College, Germany had made a “strategic error of neglecting analysis and growth of batteries”. “It was most likely thought that batteries could be wanted just for smartphones and different portables, which was a mistake.”

Tailored from Sanderson’s new e book Volt Rush: The Winners and Losers within the Race to Go Inexperienced

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